What is a Class 100 Cleanroom?

A cleanroom is a highly controlled environment in which various products are manufactured. It is controlled in order to contain a low level of pollutants such as airborne microbes, chemical vapors, aerosol particles and dust. Cleanrooms are typically used in chemistry labs, data recovery companies, and micro chip manufacturing. The concentration of airborne particles in a cleanroom is controlled or regulated to a specific limit. A typical office building normally contains between 500,000 and 1,000,000 particles—which is 0.5 microns or more per cubic foot of air. Cleanrooms often maintain a condition of particulate free air with the use of Ultra Low Particulate Air (ULPA) or High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters that use turbulent air flow or laminar principles.

There are several classes or standards of environmental control. They are done according to the number and size of particles in a given volume of air. Here are the classes according to the US FED STD 209E:

ClassMaximum particles/ft3ISO Equivalent
11ISO 3
1010ISO 4
100100ISO 5
1,0001,000ISO 6
10,00010,000ISO 7
100,000100,000ISO 8

Therefore, a class 100 cleanroom is particularly designed to allow not more than 100 particles per cubic foot of air. Once a cleanroom has been built then it should be maintained according to those original standards in order for it to attain peak performance. Human air measures about 75 to 100 microns in diameter and a particle that is about 200 times smaller than human air can experimentally cause a major disaster in a class 100 or any other higher cleanroom. According to NASA, contamination can easily lead to expensive downtime and higher production costs. Their billion-dollar Hubble Space Telescope was partially damaged and hampered from performing because of a particle sized below 0.5 microns.

In the current age of computers and information, cleanrooms are very essential. Computers and servers don’t perform well when they are exposed to pollutants and other particles. Therefore cleanrooms should be built for optimum performance to be realized. Any personnel hired to work in and maintain a cleanroom should be extensively trained on the contamination control theory. Cleanrooms should be entered through air showers, air locks and gowning rooms. Special clothing should be worn and specially designed to trap contaminants in the room. Working in a normal computer environment should not have all these controls but maintaining cleanroom conditions optimizes the performance of computers.

Contamination of a Cleanroom

This is the process that causes surfaces or materials to be soiled by some substances. The principal categories of surface contaminants include particulates and the film type. They produce a killer defect in a kind of miniature circuit. Particles of 0.5 microns or larger are normally the target of cleanrooms but some industries now want to target even smaller particles in order to boost particles. And everybody that enters the cleanroom should aim at maintaining the same environment. Strict procedures are often followed when cleaning or entering a cleanroom. Compromise halts the production process hence it is not acceptable.

Common sources of Contamination in a Class 100 Cleanroom

http://s3-media4.fl.yelpcdn.com/bphoto/e_K7DyMiJTQJYm503DTdDw/l.jpgThe list prepared below shows some of the common contaminants in a cleanroom that can cause serious damage. There are five basic sources of contaminants that massively contribute to lowered production and efficiency in a machining environment. They include:

  1. Fluids- these are deionized water, outgasses or plasticizers, floor coatings or finishes, moisture, organics, bacteria, particulates that are floating in air and cleaning chemicals.
  2. Tool generated- these are mops, dusters, brooms, emissions, lubricants, vibrations, wear particles and friction.
  3. Product generated- these are aluminum particles, quartz flakes, silicon chips and cleanroom debris.
  4. People- these are hair, spittle, clothing debris (fibers, lint), body oil, skin flakes, perfume and cosmetics.
  5. Facilities- these are leaks, spills, vapors, room airs, coatings, paintings, ceilings, floors, walls, air conditioning debris and construction materials (saw dust, sheet rock).

General Cleanroom Regulations

For the successful operation of a cleanroom, certain minimum conditions need to be met. All the cleaning personnel need to have these regulations at their fingertips in order to maintain the best condition in the cleanroom. They include:

  1. Valuable personal items including wallets may be allowed in the cleanroom but they should not be removed from the underside of cleanroom garments.
  2. All person items including watches, keys, matches, rings, cigarettes and lighters should be carefully stored in a personal locker outside the official gowning room.
  3. All garments worn in the cleanroom must be pre-approved.
  4. Cosmetics must not be allowed in a cleanroom. These include eye shadow, mascara, rouge, hair spray, lipstick, fingernail polish, false eye lashes, mousse, perfumes, after shaves and heavy usage of aerosols.
  5. Only the approved cleanroom papers ought to be allowed in the cleanroom.
  6. No smoking, gum chewing or eating in the cleanroom.
  7. People with stomach disorders, respiratory disorders or in any way physically ill ought not to enter the cleanroom.
  8. No single tool should be allowed on the surface of a table or bench in a cleanroom. All tools should be placed on the cleanroom wiper.
  9. All materials, equipment and containers that are introduced to a sterile facility need to be subjected to be subjected to maximum stringent sterilization before entrance to the cleanroom.
  10. Any wiper used in the cleanroom must be pre-approved. A class 100 cleanroom has its own special wipers that are different from those of other classes.
  11. In order to reduce skin flaking, only approved lanolin based soaps or skin lotions are allowed in the cleanroom.
  12. Anybody in the cleanroom should avoid solvent contact with their bare skin because solvents can remove oils from the skin and increase skin flaking.
  13. The use of paper fabric towels is prohibited in the strongest terms. Only hand dryers assorted with HEPA filters are recommended.
  14. The only writing tool in a cleanroom is an approved ballpoint pen.
  15. Finger cots or gloves are not allowed to come to contact with any surface or item that has not been thoroughly cleaned.
  16. Products should only be handled by approved gloves, pliers, finger cots and tweezers.
  17. All fixtures, containers and tools used in the process of cleaning should be cleaned to the same standard and degree as cleanroom surfaces.

Data recovery from a hard drive is carried out with these standard cleanroom measures. Therefore, you need to contact professional data recovery experts for the best industry standards and results.

For more information about what class 100 cleanrooms are please

About the Author: Zach Schapel holds a degree in Linguistics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Due to his interest in information technology, he has also pursued a Postgraduate Diploma in Information Technology from the same university. He worked in various private schools before joining InterData Recovery as a researcher and writer. He has published numerous articles on information technology, forensic science and software engineering in his capacity as the Chief Writer. With more than 10 years’ experience as a writer now, Zach offers advice and tips on how to handle data recovery issues and concerns. He has won various awards for his editorial work.

What is PHP and Why to Use It

PHP is a recursive acronym referring to Hypertext Preprocessor. But does this really provide a solution as to what PHP really means? Well, PHP was derived from the earliest version of this program, referred to as the Personal Home Page Tools. PHP is an open source general-purpose scripting language that is widely used for web development. PHP is used by a myriad of web developers to enhance webpages, create usernames and password login pages, create forums, surveys and picture galleries, and check form details and much more. In case you have across any webpage which ends in PHP, it implies that the author has actually written up a programming code to make live the old and plain HTML.

From inception, PHP has always been a language sided with the server because it is normally executed from the computer you have requested it from; not necessarily your own computer. Results of the request are then handed over to you and thereafter displayed on the browser in your computer. Some of the other popular scripting languages in use include Perl, Python and ASP. But the good thing is all these are not required for you to make use of PHP. And with the increasing number of programmers on the web who have great knowledge in PHP and other complementary scripting languages, you don’t need any programming knowledge or experience at all.

In case you are a businessman who wants to build your website for fast and efficient use and experience by customers then PHP is the solution. If you are an ambitious person who is looking for a career in the web scripting and web design industry then PHP is the right destination. With several free and paid tutorials available on the web, you can easily make a good living out of this.

http://image.slidesharecdn.com/php-140811084934-phpapp01/95/php-comprehensive-overview-3-638.jpg?cb=1407765028Since inception in 1994, PHP has been released in five major versions along with many other improvements. Implementation of PHP is normally powered by the Zend Engine which compiles PHP source code to create an internal format that it can execute. Therefore, it ends up working as aim interpreter. Alternative forms of implementation include the HipHop Virtual Machine, Parrot, Phalanger and HipHop.

Why Use PHP

PHP so far forms the best technology to use whether you are starting a small business and want to scale or you have a plan to build a very large business. PHP can be used for writing desktop applications, command line scripting and server side scripting. Every online business owner needs to know what is PHP and why to use it. PHP enables you make several variations and adjustments that make your business better and more efficient for use by your customers. Therefore, you can easily create more streams of revenue as you progress further. These are some of the reasons why you should use PHP:

  1. E-commerce Building and Integration

Whether you are an advanced coder or a beginner, PHP easily takes care of your needs. Advanced coders can use PHP to build their own shopping cart applications or code a new framework from scratch. Beginners or programmers who simply know some basic PHP skills can make use of Shoppify, Magento and Zen Cart.

  • Graphical User Interface (GUI)

You can also use PHP installations to create wonderful desktop applications. Some of the PHP extensions you can use to create GUI applications include PHP GTK and ZZEE PHP GUI. PHP GTK is a popular open source extension which implements the GIMP toolkit whereas, on the other hand, ZZEE PHP GUI is a paid solution which enables you to turn PHP scripts into applications for Windows.

  • Project Management Tools

Project management is not an option for web development firms and freelancers. Clients require a good resource in order for them to check work progress and then provide the necessary feedback. Clients become much more pleased with the end result when there is a good project management system in place. Instead of spending a lot of money on subscription based project management tools available online, you can build your own project management tool that meets the specifics of your business and those of your customers through PHP.

  • Developing Social Media Applications

Facebook is the leading social media website and application in the world at the moment. You can create a Facebook application for your business by making use of the PHP client library and taking instructions on how to install and make use of the files that are installed in the library. Applications for other social media platforms can also be customized through PHP technologies.

  • Building an Active Online Community

Irrespective of the nature of business that you are dealing in, your users will need to feel closely connected to the message and or product you have. If you develop a web application then a good idea would be a forum where your esteemed customers would discuss issues. In case you want to build your own online community from scratch then we would recommend that you make use of the PHP Framework. Some of the PHP building tools at your disposal include Pun BB, vBulletin and php BB.

  • Parsing Files in XML Format

PHP makes it possible for you to parse all your XML files because PHP has this feature. This feature takes care of all users because not all browsers are able to display the elements of XML files. XML is very good for any RSS feeds, data storage and data accessibility on different forms of devices. The procedure for parsing XML files simply involves creating the XML parser, setting up the functions to handle both opening and closing the XML tags, opening the reading file, file reading and closing thereafter.

  • Generating Files in PDF Format

PDF has become a popular format for sending and receiving heavy documents online in a safe and secure way. With the help of a PDF library known as PDFLib, you can easily generate PDF files through PHP. This will make it easier for you to generate reports or files such as printing out an invoice in PDF format.

  • Processing and Generating Images

With the help of the GD library in PHP, you can easily do more than merely generating output to the browser of the HTML. You can present output in different types of files such as png, jpeg and even gif. This feature enables you to create many thumbnail pictures, crop and resize images, come up with a photo gallery and add watermarks.

  • Mailing Lists

With PHP you can easily write your own script and then send some email newsletters to a client. This is a good way to keep your clients updated about the latest products and services you have on offer with respect to products and services, vacations, holidays and other general announcements. You can include anything else in the automated newsletter.

  1. Content Management System (CMS)

All actively used responsive websites require a sound Content Management System (CMS) and you can use PHP to create one. Some of the PHP enabled commercial or free resources you can use to enable you create a good CMS include Joomla, WordPress and Drupal.

  1. Creating Charts and Graphs

Would you need to create some visual representation of figures in your site? PHP is the answer as it will enable you to create charts and graphs through its feature the Image Graph. Up to 14,000 different bar graphs, pie charts, dot/scatter, candlestick, impulse, radar and box and whiskers are available. This will prove invaluable if you have an ecommerce website and you need to create graphical presentations concisely.

  1. Creating Different Website Templates

Through PHP you can easily add elements and pages to your business websites. First, you need to create a HTML page then add the PHP extension to subsequent pages. PHP also makes it easy to create top navigation sections and dynamic sidebars.

  1. Creating a Photo Gallery

You may want to create a photo gallery for your own use or on your business website. PHP has the exif function which enables you to get header information concerning the photos and the output as well as a thumbnail version of the same.

  1. Creating a Flash

Depending on the requirements of your business website, you can create Flash elements using the Ming library.

  1. Creating WordPress Plugins

WordPress is undoubtedly the leading Content Management System in use at the moment. Through WordPress Codex, you can use PHP to create plugins to suit your website requirements. In case you simply want to create ideas then you can also make use of the plugin ideas availed by PHP.

PHP is simply the future of web development. For more information about PHP please click here!

About the Author: Rasmus Lerdorf is a Canadian Greelandic programmer. He holds a degree in Bachelor of Applied Science in Systems Design Engineering. He has worked with Yahoo! Inc., WePay, Etsy and as an independent consultant for Information Technology firms. He is a regular speaker in various Open Source conferences held in various parts of the world. Having bagged numerous awards for his candid work, he helped WePay a great deal by assisting them to develop their application programming interface. He was the first person to create the PHP scripting language along with the first two versions. He has written several keynote speeches and addresses with regard to PHP.

Is “Lost Data” Damaged When An Expert Recovers It?

There is a misconception coming around that once a file is deleted, it will be tainted or contaminated to be considered as trash. However, if you try and notice things that are on recycle bin and retrieved, they will remain the same and nothing happens to it. The same thing applies even if you permanently delete it from your device. That is why professionals are able to retrieve data and restore it to the same point as before, without losing or adding something.

If you have a lost data that you want to be retrieved, professional technicians can easily retrieve it. Depending on the software they use, the file can either stay the same or might be a bit altered. But, if you ask the company in Boston to retrieve it, you are assured that the file will be the same and allows it to operate normally again.

Choosing The Right Technician For The Job
There are different technicians with different expertise since it takes years to be able to master a particular field. Basically speaking, if you want to have your files retrieved, you need to hire an expert that specializes in that kind of situation, and not just a general technician, which might cause your data to change or altered.

As much as possible, before trusting your driver to a company or technician, make sure that you’ve considered a few options before coming up with the final company to hire. The comparison can help you determine which of them are better in handling your problem, especially if you want your lost data to be retrieved as is.

Sometimes, technicians also have limits when it comes to retrieving files. There might be some who can retrieve even those that was deleted a few months back; others are only able to retrieve a week old to the most recent files. Depending on what you want to retrieve, you need to consider that so you wouldn’t be hassled to jump from one company to another since you can easily research this online.

The price of the service also depends on the software they used and how many files you wasn’t to be recovered. Go for those companies that allow you to canvass their price first instead of making the service as soon as you give it to them because that can cause you to be charged higher. Basically speaking, it depends on who we choose to do the job.

Best Storage Solutions For Small Businesses

Most people nowadays prefer to put up a business online where they can easily manage their files and present their products and services with ease to people in different parts of the world. The more you present new data to people about your company, the easier it is for you to get their attention and convince them to purchase from you. However, this will also mean that you have to allot enough space for the storage so you can keep as many files as possible.

How to Look for the Best Storage for Your Business
As your business starts to grow, you will soon realize that you need more space for all your files such as emails, documents, presentations, and more. So to ease you problem, it is important that you search for the best storage solutions that will perfectly suit your needs. Lots of companies are in need of storage so you don’t have to wonder why there are also lots of data storage providers. If you want to make the right choice of a storage provider, then here are some factors that you have to consider.

  • The first thing that you have to do is to identify your storage needs. This will help you narrow down your options because you will only have to look for providers that are capable of offering you the storage your business needs.
  • You have to be aware of the storage options available such as network-area storage, flash memory, and more so it would be easy for you to identify which one is perfect for your business.
  • If you don’t have any idea about choosing a storage provider, then it is advisable that you ask help from a professional IT because for sure they are knowledgeable when it comes to this matter.

It will always be essential that you familiarize yourself with the storage solutions available so that you are already prepared or you can do immediate actions before your business will require more storage. As much as possible, you should not wait for the time that your business is in need of the storage instead plan ahead of time to get away from the hassles that it can possibly cause. You also have to know how much it will cost you to acquire certain storage so you can choose the one that will suit your budget. Just make sure that it is an effective solution for your company.

Why Data Recovery Can Be So Challenging

Computer crashes can happen in an instant, taking hundreds of gigabytes of data with them into the digital ether. These crashes can be caused by a power outage or even a battery simply losing its charge. Data recovery after such an event can be a headache for the average computer user, and even experts in the field of computer repair fear a crash. There is no one reason why data recovery can be a difficult undertaking, as there are several factors that affect any crash and what comes after.

What’s So Difficult About Data Recovery?

Computer data can be surprisingly delicate. Hard drives are fickle, and can be corrupted with almost no notice over a period of time. Modern devices are designed with more safeguards in mind, but to the average consumer who doesn’t keep up with the latest in computer advances and data storage, a computer crash can wipe out years of stored data. One of the greatest threats to data recovery is a lack of secondary storage. A backup hard drive or cloud storage is a great way to preserve data in the event of a computer crash, but many people don’t take advantage of these options. Without a backup, it can be extremely difficult to restore lost data.

Another problem plaguing data recovery is simple human error. When the average person is using a computer, a common complaint is that the computer “runs slowly.” An individual may attempt to clear space on the hard drive, freeing up processing power so that the device runs more smoothly and quickly. In doing so, valuable data can be erased completely, without the user knowing for sure what is lost forever and what is recoverable. When a data recovery expert is attempting to salvage lost data, they can encounter difficulty with situations like this; the computer owner isn’t exactly sure what was deleted and when, only that they cleared up a bunch of space on their cluttered hard drive.

Since each situation is unique to a device, computer crashes don’t have a catch-all solution for total data recovery. Everything from actual physical damage to a computer to more nebulous situations like hardware failure contribute to data loss, and a data recovery expert must keep in mind every possible situation so they can do what they can to recover as must lost data as possible, while keeping in mind that complete recovery is unlikely and, in some cases, impossible.

Lost Sectors On A Hard Drive Aren’t Necessarily Gone Forever

Are you worried about deleted files? You may have accidentally pressed delete or empty recycle bin and you suddenly think to yourself that you might need those actual files. What you need to remember that once you delete a file, it doesn’t mean that it’s gone forever. It is still on your hard drive and even though you have emptied it from the recycle bin, you or even other people can still recover these files. The lost sectors in your computer aren’t truly lost and this is also why you also need to be careful about having other people find out about your delete files.

Things That Go Down When You Delete Files
If you are looking for ways on how to recover lost sectors you are in luck since they are not permanently gone. Most operating systems keep track of the files and where they are on the hard drive. They will track down a certain pointer. Each of the files and the folders on your hard disk has a pointer which in turn tells the operating system where the file’s data begins and also where it ends.

Deleting a file means that the operating system removes the pointer then it marks the sector which contains the file’s data. In the point of view of the system, the file is no longer there and it frees up your space.

The truth is the system actually writes a new data over the sectors that have the contains the file. This means that the file can still be recovered. When you go for file recovery programs, you can find that they can scan the hard drives for deleted files and then restore them. When the file is overwritten then the file recovery program is able to recover only part of that data. What you have to remember as well is that this will not typically apply to solid-state drives or SSDs.

Your operating system makes it a point to delete your files faster which is why you can still recover it eventually. This is because actually deleting the file and overwriting its pointer takes time since the system would have to overwrite its data. In case you really would lie to delete a file and all its contents, you can find a file shredding tool which can help you get rid of the file permanently. This is why you don’t have to worry about recovering lost data especially when you haven’t even gone to overwrite that same data using any their party applications.

For Complicated Business Lawsuits, Consider Forensic Data Services

You know that storage devices are prone to data corruption. Especially storage devices of cheap and made of low-quality materials. There are materials available all over the internet on what to consider in buying storage devices. If you already have a corrupted data in your storage media, you will find ways to recover them especially the important ones.

In searching for the solution to recover files, you will surely consult the internet. You will surely find several recovery software and methods for file recovery. But we will not talk about more of the data recovery. There is also another factor to consider in stored data. One of the factors that can be considered is data pattern.

It is also important to consider the data pattern, especially for business. It is due to the modernization of fraudulence that can also reach the digital world. Due to this reason, the digital forensics was established. It aims to recover the deleted or intentional data in digital devices. It also involves the investigation of the found and recovered data. Do you know why? It is because it might have a connection with digital or cybercrime.

You will be introduced to one of the newly established fields of forensics – the forensic data services. This forensic service falls under the jurisdiction of digital forensics. But what can forensic data analysis provide you? If you are a business owner, you should be considering on hiring its services. You will be given reasons why you need to consider hiring forensic data services, especially on complicated business lawsuits.

THE REASONS TO CONSIDER
You can seek the help of forensic data analysts especially if you are caught in a complicated business lawsuit. The lawsuit can be a former or current employee and especially, against a rival company. Some of the crimes that can be investigated by the forensic data analyst are as follows:

  • Cybercrime – Hacking
  • Cyber Stalking – Intellectual Property Theft

These are just a few of the common problems. But these problems are the most common with rival businesses.

If you are a client of a forensic data analyst, you can ask them to retrieve some records that you lost or became corrupted. It is a way of proving the truth, especially against an adversary’s claim, using your recovered data.The recovery and analysis of data is a part of a forensic data analyst’s job. It is to uncover the truth and dispel all the lies with the use of data patterns.

Demystifying The Data Recovery Process

Nowadays, people have their own computers in their homes. This is due to the fact that they can get tons of advantages from this machine. One of these advantages is that they are able to do research with just a few clicks of their keyboard and by connecting their computer to a reliable internet connection. Their studies will be faster compared to going to the library and reading through hundreds of books. Another advantage of using a computer is that students and office workers can create the reports that they need to submit to their professors or to their superiors a lot faster thanks to the various programs that can be installed in computers. Another advantage that people can get from computers is that they can store various data and files on their devices.

Storing Data In Computers
The computer is able to save various data and files depending on the size of the memory storage. This means that people can save more files if the memory storage of their computer is high. Computers are reliable when it comes to saving and storing data. However, there are instances where people are not able to access these things anymore. There are also times when the data or files that they have saved are completely gone and cannot be found on the computer.

What Can People Do?
In this type of instance, people can do data recovery so that they will be able to retrieve the data and the files that were missing to their computer. They can hire a person who is an expert when it comes to recovering the lost data in a computer so that they are certain that they will not be able to do more harm than good when they try data recovery themselves.

How Recovering Data Works
Some people might think that recovering lost or deleted data from a computer is magic but it is actually a series of steps that people can do to their computer. There are a number of ways in which people recover the lost data on their computer. One of these is by restoring their computer to the previous version which is also called as shadow versions. Others can restore lost data by getting them from the back up of their computer. Normally, the retrieval of lost data by getting them from the back up is applicable for computers that have Window back up in them. They can also use the recover files or the recover drive option on their computer.

How To Lock Down A XenServer

Way back in the year 2003, an open source project was developed by Ian Pratt as a research project at the University of Cambridge. The said project was named as XenServer, an open source software for the different purposes like for the security of runs of multiple applications and operating systems on a single device simplifies IT management of applications and server, and enables the automation and consolidation to lessen costs. The open source virtualization is managed by Citrix which offers a business support and services for the users who needs a great support.

This history does not stop in that way but continues to grow and innovated into one company with great people working with the developer. Even nowadays, the virtualization platform is being used by many server virtualization businesses in a most affordable and cost-effective consolidation.

Xen Hypervisor, formerly called XenSource Inc. was created by the developer Ian Pratt together with other great technology inventors. Together with the foundation of the company is the release of the new version, Xen 10 but in a short time, it was later on upgraded into Xen 20. XenServer is the top open source virtualization platform under the Xen Project Hypervisor. It has served so many individuals even up until now and will be in the future.

Everyone may know how to begin the software but doesn’t know how to lock down. This scenario is common mostly to the new users, so we will discuss that here in this article so read along and discover how. It will only take some time to read but enables your question answered.

Since Xen Project is powered by Citrix, customer services are offered to deal with users with problems such as the mentioned scenario above which is about the locking down of the software. The lockdown will be done in its Virtual Machines (VM’s). It is locked down for the purpose of securing VPN connections, mostly virtual machines for business.

Another purpose is locking down software whenever used at work or when traveling, and prevents VM’s from changing their own unicast addresses. The open source virtualization is tested as a powerful tool for running multiple virtual machines and can handle server workloads. So if something happens if host power failures, VM’s had errors and does not appear in XenCenters, you can shut down the machine then reset and contact support from Citrix.